# JNTUK R20 2-1 Surveying and Geometrics Materials | Full Notes PDF Download

Students learning JNTUK R20 Civil Branch, Can Download the Unit-wise R20 2-1 Geometrics and Surveying Material Below are PDFs.

OBJECTIVES:

• Learn the principles and techniques of surveying.
• Find horizontal and vertical distances as well as angles.
• Accurate recording of observations
• Calculate based on the observation
• Rectification of the error’s source and methods for rectification
• Use surveying principles to identify volumes and areas and then set out curves
• Make use of modern equipment for surveying to get precise results.

UNIT-1

Introduction and the Basic Concepts The Introduction and Objectives. Classification and the principles of surveying Surveying equipment. Introduction to Compass Levelling, Plane table surveying.

The measurement of Directions and Distances Linear distances-Approximate methods Direct Methods- Chains tapes, ranging, tape corrections.

Prismatic CompassBearings with angles, local Attraction Magnetic Declination, dip W.C.B systems, and Q.B. system for the ability to locate bearings.

UNIT-2

I was levelling Levels – Types of levels, temporary and permanent adjustments, techniques of levels, levelling, booking and determination of groups, and the effect of Curvature and Refraction.

ContouringThe characteristics and the uses of contours, methods for contour surveying.

Areas – Determination of the area comprised of irregular boundaries or regular borders.

Volumes The determination of the quantity of earthwork cutting and embankments to the section at a level, the importance of borrow pits capacities of reservoirs.

UNIT-3

Theodolite Surveying Types of Theodolite adjustments measuring horizontal angle using repetition and the reiteration technique measuring vertical angle trigonometrical levelling when the base is not accessible or inaccessible.

Traversing Methods for using traverses, computations, and modifications, an introduction omitted measurements.

UNIT-4

Curves are the types of curves and their essential components of simple, reverse compound curves.

Tacheometric Surveying The Basics of Tacheometry Stadia, tangential, and techniques of tangential Tacheometry,

Contemporary Surveying Techniques Basics and types of E.D.M. Tools, Total Station benefits and applications. A brief introduction to the Global Positioning System.

UNIT-5

Photography Surveying Introduction, fundamental notions, perspective geometry of aerial photos Relief and tilt distortions. Also, photogrammetry for terrestrial use flight planning. Stereoscopy Ground control extensions for aerial photographic triangulation and radial triangulation techniques; photography-based mapping- using maps printed on paper, stereo plotting tools and mosaics, and map substitutes.

TEXTBOOKS:

1. Surveying (Vol 1, 2 and 3) Written from B. C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain Laxmi Publications (P) ltd., New Delhi.

2. Chandra A.M “Plane surveying, and higher surveys” New Age International Pvt. Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi.

3. Duggal K, “Surveying (Vol – 1 and 2.), Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.

REFERENCES:

1. Arthur R Benton and Philip J Tasty, Elements of Plane Surveying, McGraw Hill.

2. The surveying process and the levelling off in R. Subramanian, Oxford University Press, New Delhi

3. Arora K R “Surveying Vol 1, 2 & 3), Standard Book House, Delhi.