Students studying JNTUK R20 CSE/IT branches, You can download the Unit-wise R20 1-A Applied Physics Notes/Material. Below is a PDF.

UNIT-1

Wave Optics

Interference Superposition principle Interference of light with thin film (Reflection Geometry) & applications colors in thin films Newton’s Rings: Determination of length and refractive index.

Diffraction: Introduction – Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction due to a single slit, double slit – N-slits(Qualitative) – Grating – Dispersive power and resolving power of Grating(Qualitative).

Polarization The basics of Polarization Polarization by reflection, double refraction, and refraction of Half wave plates of Nicol’s Prism as well as Quarter Wave plates

Unit Objectives: The students will be in a position to

• Define the need for coherent sources as well as the conditions for continuous interference (L2)
• Find engineering applications for interference (L3)
• Compare the effects of Diffraction and interference using applications (L4)
• Define how polarization is a concept of light and its applications of it (L2)
• The classification of ordinary polarized light is different from extraordinary light that is polarized (L2)

Unit-2

Fiber optics and lasers

Lasers The Introduction. Featured characteristics of lasers – Spectacular and stimulated emission of radiation – Einstein’s equations Inversion of the population -Lasing action Pumping mechanisms Ruby laser He-Ne laser – Application of lasers.

Fiber optics: Introduction -Principle of optical fiber- Acceptance Angle-Numerical ApertureClassification of optical fibers based on refractive index profile and modes -Propagation of electromagnetic wave through optical fibers – Applications.

Unit Objectives: The students will be capable of

• Know the basic principles of LASER Light Sources (L2)
• Utilize the knowledge to discover the different types of lasers (L3)
• Finds out the Engineering application of lasers (L2)
• Define the principle behind optical fibers (L2)Classify optical fibers based on refractive index profile as well as modes of propagation (L2)
• Determine the potential applications of optical fibers across various areas (L2)

UNIT-3:

Quantum Mechanics, Free Electron Theory, and Band Theory

Quantum Mechanics: Dual nature of matter Heisenberg’s uncertainty Principle – The significance and properties of the waves – Schrodinger’s Independent and Dependent Wave Equations Particle in a single-dimensional infinite-potential well.

Free Electron Theory: Classical free electron theory (Qualitative with a discussion of its merits and drawbacks) — Quantum free electron theory equation for the Conductivity of electrical energy based on a quantum theory of free electrons Fermi-Dirac distribution – Density of states (3D) 3D Fermi energy.

The Band Theory for Solids Bloch’s theorem (Qualitative) Theorem of Bloch’s Theorem (Qualitative) Kronig theorem Penney theory (Qualitative) E Vs. K diagram V and K diagram Effective mass of electrons – Classification of solids with crystals. Concept of the hole.

Unit Objectives: The students will be in a position to

• Discuss the concept of double nature in the matter (L2)
• Learn about the importance of the Wave function (L2)
• Learn to interpret the theories of quantum and classical theory of free electrons (L2)
• Discuss the importance of the K-P model.
• Sort the materials according to the theory of bands (L2)
• Utilize the concept of the effect of the mass of an electron (L3)

Unit-4:

Magnetic and Dielectric Materials Magnetic Materials

Dielectric Materials The Introduction: Dielectric the polarization of dielectrics – Dielectric polarizability susceptibility and dielectric constant – Different types of polarizations: Electronic (Quantitative) Ionic (Quantitative) and Polarizations of Orientation (Qualitative) (Qualitative) Lorentz internal field Claudius – Mossotti equation Piezoelectricity.

Magnetic Materials: Introduction – Magnetic dipole moment -MagnetizationMagnetic susceptibility and permeability – Origin of the permanent magnetic moment – Classification of magnetic materials: Dia, para, Ferro, antiterror & Ferri magnetic materials – Domain concept for Ferromagnetism & Domain walls (Qualitative) – Hysteresis – soft and hard magnetic materials- Eddy currents- Engineering applications.

Unit Results: The students will be capable of

• Discuss the concept of dielectric constant and dielectric polarization dielectric substances (L2)
• List the various types of dielectric polarization (L2)
• Interpret Lorentz field and Clausius- Mosotti relation in dielectrics(L2)
• Classify magnetic materials according to susceptibility and relationship to temperature (L2)
• Define the functions of magnetic and dielectric materials (L2)
• Use the notion of magnetism to magnetic information storage devices (L3)

Unit-5:

Semiconductors, as well as Superconductors

Semiconductors Introduction-Intrinsic semiconductors Density of charge carriers Conductivity of electrical energy Fermi level – extrinsic semiconductors Density of charge carriers and the dependence of Fermi energy on temperature and concentration of the carrier – Drift and diffusion currents Einstein’s equation Hall effect Hall coefficient – Application for the Hall effect.

SuperconductorsIntroduction Data on the properties of superconductors Meissner effect Type I superconductors and Type II BCS Theory (Qualitative) The theory of Josephson impacts (AC and DC) SQUIDs Tc superconductors. Applications of Superconductors.

Unit Results: The students will be in a position to

• The energy bands are the categories for semiconductors (L2)
• Learn to interpret the indirect and direct band gap in semiconductors (L2)
• Determine the semiconductor type with the help of the Hall effect (L2)
• Find applications for electronics with semiconductors (L2)
• Superconductors are classified based on Meissner’s effects (L2)
• Discuss Meissner’s effect BCS theory, and Josephson effects in the superconductors (L2)

Textbooks:

1. M. N. Avadhanulu, P.G.Kshirsagar & TVS Arun Murthy” A Textbook ofEngineering Physics”– S.Chand Publications 11th Edition, 2019.
2. Engineering Physics” by D.K. Bhattacharya and Poonam Tandon, Oxford press(2015).
3. Applied Physics from P.K.Palanisamy SciTech publications.

REFERENCE books:

1. Fundamentals of Physics Fundamentals of Physics Halliday, Resnick and Walker, John Wiley &Sons
2. Engineering Physics by M.R.Srinivasan, New Age international publishers (2009).
3. Shailendra Sharma, Jyotsna Sharma, ” Engineering Physics,” Pearson Education, 2018
4. Engineering Physics Engineering Physics Sanjay D. Jain D. Sahasrabudhe and Girish, University Press
5. Semiconductor Physics and DevicesThe basic principle Donald A, Neamen, Mc Graw Hill
6. B.K. Pandey, as well as S. Chaturvedi, Engineering Physics, Cengage Learning

RELATED ARTICLES